Name Hafnium
Symbol Hf
Atomic Number 72
Atomic Mass 178.49 atomic mass units
Number of Protons 72
Number of Neutrons 106
Number of Electrons 72
Melting Point 2150.0 C
Boiling Point 5400.0 C
Density 13.2 grams per cubic centimeter
Normal Phase Solid
Family Transition Metals
Period 6
Cost $120 per 100 grams



Origin of Name From the Latin word Hafnia, meaning Copenhagen
Date and Place of Discovery In 1923 in Copenhagen, Denmark
Discovered by Dirk Coster, a Danish chemist, and
Charles de Hevesy, a Hungarian chemist
Common Compounds
Interesting facts
  • It was predicted after Mendeleev created his periodic table.
  • It is not found free in nature.
  • It makes up about .00058% of the earth's crust.
  • It was discovered using X-ray spectroscopy to study the arrangement of the outer electrons of zirconium ore.
  • Niels Bohr, Dirk Coster, and Charles de Hevesy predicted its electron structure before it was discovered.
  • It is difficult to separate from zirconium, but it's present in all its ores.
Common Uses
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Nuclear control rods
  • Gas-filled and incandescent lamps
  • Vacuum tubes
  • An alloying agent in iron, niobium, tantalum, and titanium.
  • Integrated circuits


Photo Courtesy of About.com
Chemical Elements
Jefferson Labs
Mrs. Purdy's Web Page

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